But such categorization of purposes and functions was not crisply clear to those people in Europe who turned to the Nazi or Fascist parties out of sheer desperation. Germany, in contrast, concentrated its full attention on the perceived Jewish biological, cultural, and economic threat and the drive for outward expansion, especially in eastern Europe.
The Legion called for a peasant society based on extreme nationalism with a dose of Romanian Orthodox Christian mysticism.
The diversity of organizations connected with fascism poses problems for any general theory. The movement revived from this low point after November, when it spearheaded the agrarian reaction to Socialist peasant organizations and strikes.
In Germany the transformative phase lasted from the reconstitution of the party in to the first electoral success in The totalitarian state stood as the antithesis of the liberal state.
Once in Parliament both parties courted key constituencies within the established order. The first phase was the radical, quasi-revolutionary movement, which lasted in Italy only from March to mid and in Germany continued from January to the abortive Beer Hall Putsch of November Even Winston Churchill remarked in the mids that, had he been an Italian, he would have been a Fascist.
What changes did occur came as much in response to intensifying economic difficulties as to well thought-out plans. From the remilitarization of the Rhineland in March to the final disaster of World War II inNazism embarked on a series of conquests that had no limits and involved ever-widening aims.
Faced with violence and potential civil war, King Victor Emmanuel III first offered the post of prime minister to a conservative. The Nazis created the Sturmabteilung SA in ; the Fascists organized fasci di combattimento, or squads, modeled after wartime special combat units.
Fascism, Nazism, and war.
How much the Fascist and Nazi regimes were the result of choices made by Mussolini and Hitler has been the subject of much debate between intentionalists and structuralists.
Both leaders were young when they took power. These paramilitary formations made both movements something new on the political scene—parties organized not for traditional electoral politics but for violent, ongoing confrontations with political opponents.
After Hitler combined the offices of chancellor and chief of state, while Mussolini formally served as prime minister under the Italian monarch. At the most inconsequential level, the Fascists tolerated jokes about the regime which the Nazis did not.
In it was larger than the French communist and socialist parties combined one scholar estimated its membership betweenand 1. He actually took a night sleeper from Milan. These New Orders outwardly appeared to be efficient systems where, as one critic commented, "The trains run on time.
All of these dictatorial parties and regimes were primarily expressions of political discontent with economic conditions, but they were also responses to the confusing complexity of modern existence.
Mosley's anti-Semitism drew him closer to Adolf Hitler than to Mussolini. Prices fell more slowly, resulting in an overall decline in the standard of living.
Backing for the fascio came from students, veterans, and young professionals along with former socialists, syndicalists, and anarchists who had joined Mussolini in and in breaking with the official Socialist Party over Italian entry into World War I.
The central myth was the salvation of the nation or race through rebirth and regeneration. Italy attempted to organize economic and social life around functional units that brought together workers and management in the various branches of the economy within a single framework.
Fascism and Nazism brought large areas of social and economic life under state control. In and he assured the military that he would begin rapid rearmament. Mussolini ended parliamentary control over the cabinet in December with a law making the head of government responsible only to the monarch.
The balance shifted from northern cities to the countryside and small towns of northern and central Italy. Peukert in Inside Nazi Germany: Rather than risk this, the political leadership in Rome gave in; the king, Victor Emmanuel II, invited Mussolini to be prime minister and to form his own government.
By the end of the 88 fasci had over 20, members, and a year later fasci had overmembers. Both regimes coped by curbing the power of the party militias and buying off key constituencies. Initially, then, there was a popularly entertained thought that the dictators would get their countries back on an even keel, and the national communities would therefore be all the better for their brief rule.
Even the soon apparent nastiness of the servants of the New Orders was frequently discounted as a temporary inconvenience. The consolidation of the mass movement and the seizure of power.Fascism Rises in Europe Comparing and Contrasting Use a chart to compare Mussolini's formed the German brand of fascism known as Nazism.
The party adopted the swastika, or hooked cross, as its symbol. The Nazis also set up a private formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling.
Fascism: Fascism, political ideology and mass movement that dominated central, southern, and eastern Europe between and and was characterized by extreme militant nationalism, hatred of communism and socialism, contempt for democracy, and belief in natural social hierarchy and the rule of elites.
Lecture 9 The Age of Anxiety: Europe in the s (2) If it is admitted that the nineteenth century has been the century of Socialism, Liberalism and Democracy, it does not follow that the twentieth must also be the century of Liberalism, Socialism and Democracy.
Fascism and Nazism were seen as malignant outgrowths of modern society, slowly consuming it.
The metaphor "twilight", most frequently applied to the state of affairs in France, suggested the end of an era. The Nazis gathered much of the best European painting and sculpture in for the Exhibition of Decadent Art, which subsequently was sold, was destroyed, or disappeared into Nazi private collections.
Fascism, Nazism, and war.
Fascism and Nazism were geared for war and expansion. Fascism Rises in Europe Comparing and Contrasting Use a chart to compare Mussolini's formed the German brand of fascism known as Nazism.
The party adopted the swastika, or hooked cross, as its symbol. The Nazis also set up a private formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling.Download